Click for related infoaggregate aggregates crusher ball mill Barite Grinding Mill barite grinding mills barite grinding plant Belt conveyor beneficiation process Cement Crusher cement mill concrete aggregate cone crusher Contact crusher crusher parts crusher plants Crushing crushing plant crushing process gold crusher gold mining equipment Gold Ore gold ore processing grinding mill grinding mills gypsum crusher hammer crusher impact crusher Iron Ore iron ore concentrate jaw crusher Mining Mining equipment Mining Industry Mobile Crusher mobile crusher plant ore crushing Ore Crushing Process Portable crushing plant Processing Equipment Roll Crusher sand washing machine screening plant stone crusher washing
Monthly Archives: November 2011
sbm mining machine
the sbm machine has a high degree of automation and is best suited for customers who want to do efficient cable recycling with a minimum of manpower. the investment cost is considerably higher than the basic sbm a unit, but your roi is realized in a very short time. cable is typically fed by a mobile crane, belt conveyor, or a fork lift truck with rotating forks into the hopper of the rough chopper. when the hopper is filled with material, the machine runs automatically for approx. 30 minutes before it needs to be re-fed. the storage bin automatically feeds the pre-chopped material into the granulator. armored cable can be processed in this configuration and the sbm machine comes with a very powerful large belt magnet.
the screening machine can be installed as an additional piece of equipment in all sbm plants and is placed after the separator process. there is always some copper in the insulation after the separation. the finer the wires within the cable, the larger the potential loss of copper. by means of a mechanical process, a larger part of the copper is recovered in the form of dust and fine wires. it is a simple yet efficient machine which pays for itself in about a year. it has two screen decks and classifies the material into three fractions (1) rough fraction–pure insulation, (2) middle fraction- insulation containing some copper which is automatically re-processed, (3) fine fraction – copper dust and fine wires.
copper beneficiation may consists of: crushing and grinding, washing, filtration, sorting and sizing, gravity concentration, flotation, roasting, autoclaving, chlorination, dump and in situ leaching, ion exchange, solvent extraction, electrowinning, and precipitation. crushing and grinding is the most energy intensive.
the methods selected vary according to ore characteristics and economic factors. approximately half of copper beneficiation occurs through dump leaching, while a combination of solvent extraction, froth flotation, and electrowinning is generally used for the other half. often, more than one metal is the target of beneficiation activities.
according to epa’s office of solid waste technical resource document, copper is increasingly recovered by solution methods including dump and in situ leaching. because most copper ores are insoluble in water, chemical reactions are required to convert copper into a water-soluble form. copper is recovered from a leaching solution through precipitation by sx/ew. solution beneficiation methods account for approximately 30 percent of domestic copper production. two-thirds of all domestic copper mines use some form of solution operations. typical leaching agents used in solution beneficiation are hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. microbial (or bacterial) leaching is used for low-grade sulfide ores; however, this type of leaching is much slower than standard acid leaching. its use is still being piloted.
hydrometallurgical copper recovery is the extraction and recovery of copper from ores using aqueous solutions. hydrometallurgical operations include the following:
(1) acid extraction of copper from oxide ores;
(2) oxidation and dissolution of sulfides in waste rock from mining or in situ ore bodies (e.g., low grade oxide and sulfide mine wastes);
(3) dissolution of copper from concentrates to avoid conventional smelting. in summary, the copper-bearing ore (and in some cases, the overburden) is leached, then the copper is recovered from the pregnant leachate through precipitation, sx/ew.
dump leaching is the simplest form of hydrometallurgical beneficiation of low-grade ores, waste rock, and overburden practiced at large, open-pit copper mines. dump leaching is a method of treating copper ore that has been extracted from a deposit. this method refers to the leaching of oxide and low-grade sulfide ore on typically unlined surfaces. these operations involve the application of leaching solution, which is usually a dilute sulfuric acid solution, collection of pregnant leach solution (pls), and extraction of copper by sx/ew or cementation. natural precipitation or mine water is generally used to leach low-grade sulfide ore, while dilute sulfuric acid is commonly used to leach oxide ores. copper dump leaches are massive, ranging in height from 20 to hundreds of feet, covering hundreds of acres and containing millions of tons of ore. dump leaching operations may take place over several years.
there are several other types of leaching operations: in situ, heap or pile, vat, and heat or agitated leaching. in some cases, roasting is employed prior to leaching in order to enhance the leachability of the material. in roasting, heat is applied to the ore which enhances its amenability to leaching without destroying the physical structure of the ore particles. the roasted material is then subjected to leaching as described above. the copper-rich leachate, referred to as “pregnant solution,” is subjected to further beneficiation while the waste material is either left in place (in the case of dump, in situ, heap, or pile leaching) or managed in tailing ponds (as in vat, heat, or agitated leaching). the major potential environmental impact of hydrometallurgical beneficiation involves acid seepage into the ground. in addition, hydrometallurgical sludges may contain undissolved metals, acids, and large quantities of water.
copper is removed from the pregnant leachate through either iron precipitation (or cementation) or solvent extraction and electrowinning. in cementation, once the most popular method for recovering copper from the pregnant leachate, the leachate is combined with detinned iron in a scrap iron cone or vibrating cementation mill where the iron replaces the copper in the solution. the copper precipitates are removed for subsequent pyrometallurgical processing.
in solvent extraction, now the most popular process, an organic chemical (chelator) that binds copper but not impurity metals is dissolved in an organic solvent (often kerosene). the chemical is then mixed with the pregnant leach solution. the copper-laden organic solution is separated from the leachate in a settling tank. sulfuric acid is then added to the pregnant organic mixture, which strips the copper into an electrolytic solution ready for electrowinning. the barren leachate (or raffinate) is sent back to the leaching system. electrowinning is the recovery of copper from the loaded electrolyte solution produced by solvent extraction, yielding refined copper metal. the copper-poor (or lean) electrolyte from electrowinning is returned to the sx plant. excess lean electrolyte from the sx unit is returned to the raffinate pond to be recycled into the leaching circuit. filter clay is used to filter the electrolyte. impurities left on the bottom of the electrowinning cells are referred to as “muds” or “slimes.” both this anode sludge and lead anodes that are no longer usable are periodically removed from the cells and sent to lead smelting facilities for resource recovery. electrowinning is functionally equivalent to electrolytic refining, but differs in that electrowinning uses a permanent, insoluble anode.
the sbm a is a professional turn-key mini plant with the substantial capacity to process 1,200-2,500 lbs per hour with mixed cable depending on size and yield. one can expect approximately 120,000 lbs per month with a one-shift operation. this estimate includes maintenance downtime for blade changing and lubrication. the granulator is equipped with a 50 hp motor but can be upgraded to 62 hp. the power requirement is 100 amps, three phase 480v. the mini plant is shipped in a 20 ft. container with minimal on-site assembly required. final installation assistance and training is provided by the factory.
in spite of the compact size of the plant, the granulator has an inner width of 20” which facilitates the easy conveyor feeding of the machine. the cable should be pre-sorted for maximum output and in certain cases pre-cut, if not flexible by means of a hand cutter or alligator shears. smaller plastic cable spools, coils, bundles, and rat’s nests can be fed directly onto the in-feed belt conveyor.
the extended sbm machine is a highly efficient plant which uses the sbm a basic unit and adds a pre-chopper with an automatic storage bin feeder. the 75 hp rough chopper chops all types of cable, even those with armor, and has the capability to process approximately 240,000 lbs per month with a one-shift operation. it is shipped in a 40 ft container with assistance of the final assembly/ installation and training provided by the factory. the power requirement is 200 amps, three phase, 480v and maximum power consumption of 130 hp.
according to the kinds of stones, the aggregate can be classified into many kinds, such as basalt aggregate, granite aggregate, limetsone aggregate, river stone aggregate, cobble stone aggregate, sand stone aggregate and slate aggregate etc.
according the aggregate heavy degrees, the aggregate can be classified into coarse aggregate and fine aggregate.
fine aggregate: the grain size is below 4.75 mm, also called sand. according to the source, there are natural sand and artificial sand. the natural sand is the rock particles whose grain size is below 4.75 mm, formed by natural weathering, potamic transport, separation and stockpiling. the artificial sand is the general terms of mechanism sand and mixing sand that go through the soil removing .
coarse aggregate: the grain size is above 4.75 mm, also called rock. the common coarse aggregate are gravel and pebble. the gravel is the rock particles whose grain size is above 4.75 mm, formed by the natural rock or river stone crushing and sieving.
aggregate product line equipment
the aggregate production equipments mainly consists of efficient crushers, such as jaw crusher, impact crusher and cone crusher. there are other auxiliary equipments, such as storage bin, vibrating screen, feeding machine and belt conveyor.
some aggregates need auxiliary process, including washing, swirling sand washing machine and rotary screen. the main purpose is to make the final products more clearer. thick powder separator and dust-cleaning apparatus can be equipped if using dry production process.
aggregate production processing
material taking: through blasting, the qualified rocks are fractured into pieces for crushing.
conveying: after blasting, the stones are transported to the broken factory by tip lorry or belt conveyor. or the conveying is the internal materials input process in each links.
crushing: using all kinds of crushers or rod mill or ball mill to crush the materials so that the materials will be smaller to meet various specifications demands.crushing is the most important link in aggregate production process and is also where the aggregate production equipment fully plays its role. in addition to various types of crusher and auxiliary equipments, the vsi5x new sand machine researched by sbm machinery is the necessary machine for producing the quality sands.
screening: sorting in the production process. through various specifications of vibrating screen, the qualified materials are selected out then transported to the corresponding materials heaps. the unqualified materials are sent to crushers for next crushing.
drying: drying the aggregates which size and shape are qualified, in order to make the moisture content reach to relevant requirements. generally speaking, the coarse aggregate needs natural drying. the fine aggregate(coarse sand and fine sand) needs dryer equipments.
storage: the produced aggregates, which meet all kinds of specification requirements, are stored separately. for the different requirements for containing moisture and operating and environment condition, the open storage can be used and the storage bin or vertical shaft can be used for storage.
in the six working procedures, conveying, crushing and screening often are repeated. the processing flow can be summarized as screening repeated, crushing repeatedly and directional conveying.
aggregate is granular loose materials whose total volume is the 60% ~ 80% of concrete volume. as the main raw material of concrete, the aggregate plays a role as skeleton or support in the concrete.the aggregate plays an important role in building. when mixing the materials with water, the cement will be thin paste after mixing. if the aggregat is not added, the cement will not be able to shape and not available. so we can say that the aggregate is very important.
sbm machinery provides professional aggregate production equipments and comprehensive technical support for you. we design the various types of equipments in order to meet the customer’s different process requirements.
within the scope of a field trip, a group of aachen university students and staff of the excavation and mining equipment group had the opportunity to travel chile. the extensive itinerary included several mine site visits on surface and underground plus the visitation of branch offices of equipment suppliers like sbm tamrock, atlas copco and lanzco. additionally the group saw two plants producing lithium and borates of the world market leader soquimich and exchanged scientific experiences with colleagues from the universidad de chile in the chilean capital santiago de chile. the general perspective of the andean country was concluded by numerous cultural sights and the visit of the european southern observatory.
in this paper the following two copper mines will be covered in detail:
• the open pit copper mine of chuquicamata in the atacama desert is one of the largest of its kind in the world in terms of mine site area. it is operated by the state owned codelco chile.
• escondida, operated by an international consortium consisting of bhp biliton, rio tinto and a japanese investor, produces annually more than one million tons of copper in metal content being the biggest copper mine in the world.
since decades chile is considered to be one of the world most important mining nations. in 2002 about 4.6 mill t of copper were mined adding up to a third of the total annual world production. besides more than 30 % of all copper ore reserves are located in the chilean andes. important by-products of the copper mining operations are gold and silver. additionally chile is one of the key producers of natural nitrates, iodine, lithium and sulphates. the value of 2001’s exports of mining products exceeded 7.5 bn us$ counting for 44 % of the overall chilean exports
the chuquicamata open pit is located some 250 km north of the coastal city of antofagasta and 1200 km north of the capital santiago de chile at an altitude of 2800 m. for as early as 1910 the mining of copper was commenced by the us american chile exploration mining, later anaconda mining. since 1971 the open pit belongs to codelco chile. today some 6500 workers are employed, who produce around 600,000 t of copper and 14,000 t of molybdenum per annum. over its entire mine life chuquicamata has produced so far almost 35 mill t of copper, corresponding with 2.5 times the recent annual world copper consumption.
a significant feature of the copper porphyry complex of chuquicamata is the deep supergeneous mineral enrichment, which could be proven to a depth of 1000 m. the ore reserves are estimated at some 13 bn t with an average copper content of 0.8 %. mina sur is located south of the ore body and in the north the radomiro tomic open pit commenced mining three years ago (figure 2), combined the three mines form the codelco chile’s division norte.
the sulphide ore is oxidised to a depth of between 100 and 200 m below ground level. since the introduction of the hydrometallurgical solvent extraction/electro winning method (sx-ew) these ore type can be utilized at low specific costs. the treatment of run of mine (rom) ore with copper contents as low as 0.3 % is still economical feasible.
the chuquicamata open pit is situated on the eastern side of the mineralization and fault system extending for 14 km. west of this system almost no mineralization is encountered. to mine the ore the open pit has to push deeper handling an increasing amount of waste rock material. the geomechanical properties of the unstable waste rock just allow for a slope angle of 30 to 32° whereas on the ore side of the pit angles of 42° result in stable slopes. because of these conditions an ore to waste ratio of about 1:2 is encountered at chuquicamata.
depending on the copper content the ore is mined selectively and treated in separate processing lines. the current cut off grade for sulphide ores, which are flotated, is set at 0.6 % copper content. per annum 60 mill t of ore averaging 1 % copper are processed and additional 10 mill t with 0.6 % cu are mined and stockpiled. starting from 2015 this material will be blended with the rom, as at that point of time the average copper content will decrease to about 0.5 %. some 10 mill t of oxide ore (0.2 to 0.5 % cu) are mined annually and heap leached. with annually 150 mill t, waste rock makes up most of the material being moved in the chuquicamata copper operation.
the blasting takes place on a daily basis at 5 pm. ingersoll rand drill rigs create the 20 m, ø 310 mm holes in a 6.5 m x 13 grid. to stabilize the final pit slopes smaller holes (ø 165 mm) are drilled at the perimeter of the pit. per day 400 t of anfo explosives (ammonium nitrate and fuel oil) are used, where encountering water bearing strata emulsion is used instead. over the last years the bench height has been standardized to 18 m.
the blasted material is loaded with p&h rope shovels having volumes of 26, 43 respectively 55 m³. auxiliary tasks are performed by komatsu dozers. for transportation purposes liebherr t 282 b trucks with a payload of 360 t, as well as caterpillar 793 are used (figure 3). until 2000 the waste rock has been transported via an in pit crusher on a belt conveyor installed by rheinbraun engineering. the advance of the open pit and layout changes were the reasons to stop the system. to reduce transport costs a new conveyor system running through a tunnel will be installed in 2005.
since lately the short term mine planning is supported by a dispatching system as used in the neighbouring radomiro tomic pit already from the first ton of ore mined in 2000. the long term planning at chuquicamata is scheduled until 2025.
processing and refining
in the first stage of the milling process the sulphide rom ore is fed into autogenous mills and in a second stage into semi autogenous ball mills to obtain the final grain size of 100 μm. the overall recovery of the processing plant amounts 87 % at 1 % copper in the rom ore compared to 60 % for the molybdenum at 0.04 % mo. the copper concentrate averages 30 % cu, 2 % zn and 0.6 % as. especially the arsenic content is the reason for not exporting the copper concentrate but to treat pyrometallurgically already on site. despite recent successes in filtering technology the management decided to resettle the village of chuquicamata to calama some 20 km away due to the high arsenic contamination of the atmosphere and the ground water. current r&d activities of the codelco division norte are aiming at introducing the more environmentally friendly bio-leaching; a pilot plant utilizing bacteria to dissolve the copper has been installed.
the oxide ore is processed to cathode copper via heap leaching and electrolysis. by this means the huge amounts of sulphuric acid resulting from the flue gas desulphurization in the smelter unit can be utilised.
the profitability of the mining operation is declining, as the mining operation is getting deeper and consequently the ore to waste ratio is deteriorating. the operative cash costs in 2002 were reported
at 39.6 us cent per pound of copper. a cost reduction of one us cent/lb equals a mine life extension of 1.6 years. therefore optimisations of the mining operations are crucial for the management like the evaluation of alternative ways to extract the copper ore. in the future an underground operation is thought to be economical and initial projects are looking at possible mine designs. the panel caving with pre-undercutting mining method as applied at codelco’s el teniente copper mine is considered as the method of choice.
codelco chile generated in 2002 a turnover of 3.49 bn us$ generating a profit of 369 mill us$. 326 mill us$ were transferred to the chilean state. the mid term strategy of the copper giant is to double the company value. massive cost reductions in current operations and an intensive investment and modernisation program, as well as several green field projects should manifest codelco chile’s position as one of the lowest cost copper producer in the world.
escondida open pitthe escondida copper mine is located some 160 km east of the coastal town of antofagasta at an altitude of 3050 m above sea level. the mine is operated since the early 1990s by an international consortium consisting of bhp billiton (57.5 %), rio tinto (30 %), a japanese investor (10 %) and the international finance corporation (2.5 %).
since the first shovel mined the daily production has been increased continuously. these days the 2300 workers and 1900 contractors mine every day on average some 960,000 t rom ore and waste rock. whereas in 1991 the annual copper production was 260,000 t in 2003 the million ton per year line was broken. after finishing the phase iv extension last year the maximum installed capacity of escondida amounts to 1.25 mill t of copper in concentrates and cathodes. mina escondida alone produces some 7 to 8 % of the annual world copper production. the total investment since 1981 sums up to 3.8 billion us$.
the mine impresses visitors with cutting edge mining equipment and methods: apart from the technical point of view the anglo- american management installed a modern organisation and the whole mine site presents itself as up to date and very tidy in comparison to other south american operations (fig. 4).
three different porphyries form the mineralization of the escondida mine. primary sulphide minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite and bornitebornite. certain areas of the reserve are covered by copper oxides. 2002 the proven reserves of sulphide ore were some 702 mill t averaging 1.45 % of copper and resources of 843 million t (1.02 % cu). additionally about 143 million t of oxide ores with an average copper content of 0.77 % are proven. the remaining life time of the escondida open pit at the current extraction rate is estimated to 40 years.
the copper ore – both sulphides and oxides – is mined using conventional drill and blast technology. the current ore to waste ratio amounts to 1.7:1 and is expected to stay in that range throughout the entire mine life. at the moment the open pit has a diameter of 2500 m and the deepest level is situated at 800 m below surface.
because of the absence of ground water comparably cheap anfo explosives can be used to breaker the material. electronical detonators have to be applied, as atmospheric disturbances are quite common in the arid climate of the atacama desert. the design of the drilling pattern is determined by the principle “mine to mill”, the blasted material should be characterised by a grain size distribution that minimizes the amount of energy in the crushing und milling process.
the rom ore is crushed in-pit and transported via belt conveyors to the processing plant. all trucks and moving vehicles in the pit, as well as all transportation and logistics are coordinated by a dispatching system manufactured by wenco international mining systems, whereas quality control, maintenance and repair activities are realised using mincom’s pit information system.
processing and refining
depending on the ore type two different ways in processing the copper ore are encountered in the escondida open pit. the oxide ores are heap leached and the sulphuric acid dissolves the copper. in the so called planta de óxido copper cathodes are produced using the hydrometallurgical sx/ew-process. during the solvent extraction stage the copper bearing solution is cleaned and enriched. the pregnant solution contains on average 40 g/l of copper and 0.18 g/l of arsenic. the last stage is the electrolysis.
the sulphide ore is processed by means of flotation to copper concentrate containing about 36 % copper. this process has a recovery rate of 85 %. the daily throughput of the processing plant is a maximum of 230,000 t/d. the grain size of the ore after passing the autogenous (figure 5) and semi autogenous ball mills is less than 100 μm. the flotation process in the rougher and cleaner stages is taking place in wemco column cells with a volume of 194 m³. the fines are deposited in waste ponds and the water is being recovered to be reused in the process. to minimize the evaporation of the resource “water”, sun reflecting, hexagonal dipyramidal plastic balls are covering the surface of the ponds.
transport and logistics
the copper concentrate is transported from the escondida mine to the port facilities in coloso via a 170 km pipeline (ø 9 inch, hdpe liner). the first 9 km the slurry has to be pumped, afterwards the mix flows by gravity towards the pacific ocean (2 m/s). disk filters reduce the water content to about 9 %. the embarkation is done using a special conveyor construction (figure 6) enabling the loading of 45,000 t vessels with 1200 t/h. the residual water is cleaned from heavy metal contamination and then charged into the pacific. the main consumers of the copper concentrate are japanese smelters (28 %) and the german “norddeutsche affinerie (na)” in hamburg (11 %).
the difficult situation of the world copper market in 2002 forced minera escondida to reduce the production figures by some 144,000 t. the world marked price in this period was at 70.3 us cent per pound. the turnover generated in 2002 accounted to 933 mill us$ generating a profit of 143.6 mill us$. the cash cost on an operational base were reported at 53.2 us cent, the cash costs after interest amounted to 59.6 us cent per pound of copper.
contribution to the community
the activities of the mining company are not singularly focussed on the production of copper but minera escondida strongly emphasizes its responsibility for the community and the environment. it committed itself to invest some 1 % of the annul earnings before tax in community projects in the vicinity. for example schools in the city of antofagasta are sponsored and research contracts are signed with local universities. additionally the inhabitants of the settlement of coloso are provided with electricity and infrastructure. in the recent five years, the social contributions added to some 21 mill us$.
iron ore classification
a kind of iron oxide ore, the main ingredients are fe3o4, and is the compounds of fe2o3 and feo, dark gray, the density about 5.15, with fe72.4%, o 27.6%, and of magnetism, after a long period weathering it become hematite.
fe2o3, is a kind of iron oxide ore, the main ingredients is fe2o3, dark red, the density about 5.26, with fe70%, o 30%, is the most important iron ore. due to the its structural condition, it can be divided into many different categories, such as red hematite, specularhematite, mica iron ore (micaceous hematite), red ocher and so on.
this is the ore containing ferric hydroxide. it is the common name of the two different structures of ore goethite hfeo2 and lepidocrocite feo (oh), also the chemical formula of its main component was written as mfe2o3. nh2o, showing khaki or brown color, containing fe about 62%, 27% o,11% h2o , the density is about 3.6 to 4.0, mostly being attached to other iron ore.
the carbonate of iron containing ore,its main ingredients is feco3, showing blue gray, with the density about 3.8. most of this ore containing quite a lot of calcium and magnesium.
such ore is a complex salt, there is no definite chemical formula, ingredients vary widely, usually with dark green, and the density about 3.8, very low iron content, is a poor iron ore.
iron ore crusher and grinding mill
•ore crusher for iron ore crushing is selected considering three aspects: properties of minerals in the deposit, type of separation process, and requirements of production. the flowsheet chosen for each coal ore must be based on the type of separation method more effective.
•sbm machinery produces a quantity of sequence metal ore crushers, of which cone crusher and cellular crusher fits for digesting this ore best. iron ore cone crusher is among the most large capability metal ore crushers. comparing with other metal crusher, metal ore cone crusher with high-efficiency has excellences for metal ore crushing processes, large productions and reduced maintenance. the prolonged force arm developed in to the cone gives higher metal ore crushing force.
•iron ore cellular crusher is created in accordance with novel sequence metal ore crushing equipment’s style and design idea, which expands the idea area of coarse crushing and good crushing. sbm metal cellular crusher is developed centered within the conception of completely adapting diverse metal crushing condition, eliminating obstacles brought on by location, environment, basis configuration, consequently offering simple, efficient, low-cost crushing equipment. our metal ore cellular crusher consists of cone crusher sequence cellular crusher, influence crusher sequence cellular crusher, jaw crusher sequence cellular crusher and crawler sort cellular crusher.
iron ore crushing
•almost all in the metal ore that is mined is utilized for generating steel. so we require the extraction of the pure steel from its ore. the extract the steel from ores, many actual physical and substance procedures are used. the technique utilized depending upon substance components and dynamics in the ore from which it is being extracted. it entails 4 primary steps:
•1. crushing and grinding of the ore. 2. concentration or dressing of the ore. 3. reduction to free metal. 4. purification or refining of the metal.
iron ore crushing process
iron ore crushing process and the process is mainly divided into the following aspects:
•① a broken process. a broken process is generally used to provide the right from the feed mill, often constitute a system with self-mill. the process is simple, less equipment, plant and small footprint.
•② two crushing process. the mostly small-scale plant using the process.
•③ three sections broken process. the basic form of the process open and three sections of three sections of a closed two.
•④ work with broken washing process. when the feeding of the mud (-3mm) of more than 5% to 10% and water content greater than 5% to 8%, should increase in the crushing process iron ore washing operations.
grinding and classification process procedures
•in terms of dressing, using a grinding or two can put the economy grinding to a mineral iron ore to any size needed. two or more grinding, usually elected by the other requirements of the decision stage.
•period and compared to two processes, a grinding process of the main advantages are: less equipment, low investment, simple operation, do not stop because of a grinding segment to another segment of the work of grinding, less downtime losses. but the mill to the iron ore particle size range, a reasonable ball hard, not easy to get the final product of smaller, low grinding efficiency.
•when asked the maximum particle size of the final product of 0.2 ~ 0.15mm (or 60% to 79% -200 mesh), generally used a grinding process. small factories, in order to simplify the process and device configuration, when the grinding fineness required 80% -200 mesh, we also used a grinding process. two outstanding advantages of grinding can be smaller products, in different sections coarse grinding and fine grinding, especially for stage process.
•in large and medium-sized factories, as required grinding fineness is less than 0.15mm (ie 80% -200 mesh), using two grinding more economical, and uniform particle size composition, was less than smashing. under the first paragraph of the mill is connected with the classification of different ways, the two grinding process can be divided into three types: the first open; second paragraph of the entire house; first local house, and the second is always closed circuit grinding work process.
•since the grinding process is classified to dry and wet. concentrator to use more wet. since the mill in order to solve the difficult problem of wear particles to improve grinding efficiency, adding a small amount from the ball mill, then known as the semi from the mill.
•since the constant grinding and crushing, milling, grinding iron ore crushing equipment, joint work, based on their association composed of a variety of ways to process.
a chilean sulphide plant decided to process reverberation slag with a hardness of 21.0 kw/t and a specific gravity of 3.8 t/m3 to overcome an ore supply problem. with this degree of hardness, it was necessary to restructure the crushing stage to reduce the top size of feed material to the grinding process, and increase the treatment flow of the plant.
metal refining plants are at the mercy of mining operations to provide them with a continuous supply of material for processing. obviously, every mining operation has fluctuations in production and this will directly affect the supply of ore to the processing plant. during the refining of metallic ores, such as copper, some of the metal itself is unavoidably removed with the slag. thus, when regular ore supply runs short, producers often have to resort to processing their waste products which generally yield some amount of metal, depending on the efficiency of the extraction process employed.
two alternatives were proposed and tested on the plant site. these were:
(1) primary gyratory crusher, secondary cone crusher, tertiary cone crusher, ball mill.
(2) primary gyratory crusher, secondary cone crusher, tertiary vsi serice crusher vertical shaft impact crusher, ball mill.
following a comparison of costs between the vsi serice crusher and the cone, the vsi serice crusher was chosen for the tertiary crusher, the total difference corresponding to a saving of approximately us$0.32 per tonne.
operating costs were evaluated as set out below:
• cost of tertiary crushing operating with the vsi serice crusher crusher decreased the maintenance costs of third stage crushing, including wear parts and lubrication. the cost of vsi serice crusher maintenance was approximately us$0.126 per tonne against us$0.228 per tonne for the cone crusher.
• cost of secondary crushing operating with the vsi serice crusher crusher, recirculation to the secondary crusher because of oversize in the screen was not necessary, thus reducing the overall cost of crushing by us$0.055 per tonne.
• power consumption total power used in the whole plant was not evaluated in detail and only the crushing process was considered, with the vsi serice crusher giving a decrease of 8% in kw-hr per tonne.
other benefits and advantages
in addition to the cost benefits directly associated with the installation of the vsi serice crusher, the operator found that, with the increased reduction taking place in the vsi serice crusher, mill liner and grinding media wear life increased.
the vsi serice crusher unique autogenous crushing and grinding action has been very successful in crushing the extremely hard reverberation slag from the secondary cone crusher, whilst reducing operating costs and increasing mill wear life.
as a result of the success of this application, the company went on to purchase a b9000 vsi serice crusher crusher for another of their sulphide plants
major benefits to the copper mining industry
there are increasing environmental pressures inhibiting the development and exploitation of new mineral deposits. this, together with the rising costs of power generation, has created a world-wide trend which sees mine and processing plant lives being extended by the adoption of energy efficient comminution processes in existing milling circuits to provide economic capacity increases and the optimisation of mineral recovery.
the vsi serice crusher uses a unique rock-on-rock crushing process. this crushing action grinds and mills the feed material to produce a fine product with no contamination from wear parts. as the material fed into the vsi serice crusher grinds and impacts against itself, the typical wear cost per tonne of material processed is very low.
sbm global hammer crusher manufacturer
as a global crusher especially hammer crusher manufacturers including goodwin barsby, hazemag, mets, parker, terex etc are so many and their hammer crusher parts are a bit different in some technical unit.so sbm hammer crusher parts supplying system contains goodwin barsby crusher part, hazemage crusher parts, mets sbm np crusher part, parker plant crusher parts, terex pegson trakpactor crusher part, tesab crusher parts , etc. mechanical crusher spare parts
sbm product range of mechanical spare parts for hammer crushers is unrivalled. sbm jaw crusher part system contains protection block,pusher,high manganese steel casting,etc. impact crusher spares: protection block
product information: protection block is designed to protect the hammerhead of hammer crusher, thus improves the working life. we supply high qualified protection block in high cr, mo, alloy steel for hammer crushers.
1 material: high manganese steel, high chromium or 45 carbon steel;casting and drop forged ,heat treated.
2 process: polished and rust-resistant as per your requests
3 size: according to your request
4 package: rust-resistant inner package and export standard carton package or as per your requests
offer high manganese hammer head
sbm has over 500 patterns for popular crushers. we have the expertise to develop crusher parts by taking measurements, producing drawing and patterns and casting.
sbm offers you the most extensive range of quality stone crusher parts to be found worldwide. the normal high manganese alloy is astm a 128 grade. we can manufature various combinations of manganese ranging from 12% to 24% and chromium ranging from 2% to 3% to produce the best manganese alloy for crushing diffferent types of stones/ores. with over 20 years of experience in manufacturing of crusher parts for the most hard and abrasive stone/metallic ores, we have developed a premium manganese alloy – known as “sbm tm “. sbm’s “big gold teeth tm” alloy has extra content along with best combination of carbon, manganese, chromium along with other alloys to deliever higher and quick initial hardness.
sbm diabase processing machinery production
diabase is mainly exported to regions such as south africa, india and other countries. in these countries, the company’s diabase crusher uses a very broad, in the diabase processing company jaw crusher machine played a significant role in my company jaw crusher, compared with the traditional machine has a unique place.
diabase processing equipment
diabase used as raw material for cast stone. cast stone is broken by the diabase, ingredients, molding, melting, casting, crystallization, annealing and made with anti-chemical corrosion, wear, insulation, high mechanical strength and other characteristics, but also necessary, cast into different shapes, to replace the metal pipes and containers, used oil, chemicals, metallurgy, electric power and other industries. made of cast stone with the diabase, the degree of acid and alkali resistance of up to 99%, wear resistance 5 times higher than carbon steel.
characteristics of diabase and diabase makes extensive use of crusher has been greatly developed, the company developed a more efficient processing of diabase cone crusher, jaw crusher processing equipment such as diabase.
the relatively advanced processing equipment should be diabase cone crusher
cone crusher is crushing hard materials in the crushing plant and the most commonly used equipment. cone crusher has three types: standard cone crusher, medium and short head cone crusher cone crusher. the difference is that the import port of discharge to adjust the width of the range is different for different feed particle size and particle size.
often used in refractory plant pyd-900, pyd-1200 to take a short head cone crusher mechanism brick aggregate, material, through its dynamic cone and fixed cone between 150 ~ 200mm long parallel region after crushing, the material particle shape more similar to the cube particles, it is suitable for brick-making requirements.
since finishing factory over the years to modify the drawings, the same specifications as cone crusher, different manufacturers, different models have different broken curve, great attention must be selected as the production of brick size of the short head cone crusher, should use its particle size less than 3mm high proportion as well.
diabase processing equipment for sale
diabase is a shallow overview of the basic intrusive rocks, so the colors were dark green or black, mainly by mafic pyroxene and plagioclase composition.
containing a small amount of olivine, biotite, quartz, apatite, magnet ore, ilmenite, etc., diabase and massive structure, mostly bedrock, rock walls or volcanic neck of output, can coexist with the gabbro, and basalt can coexist with, or become a dark vein of acid rock rock.
diabase genesis simple, mainly formed by the magma, located in the vicinity of the suture.
diabase is cast stone, rock wool raw materials, fragmentation can be used for decorative stone is large, but also for the preparation of acid corrosion coating, the last two or three decades to develop more minerals.
sbm crusher hammer is becoming popular
crusher hammer is the core part of a crusher, so the good quality of a crusher hammer plays an important role in operating the whole machine normally. in recently days, sbm is becoming popular in wearable complex little hammer. by researching, low alloy wearresistant cast steel with high strength and toughness is very ideal compared with conventional wear-resistant materials.
low alloy steel has mechanical property, particularly in toughness and strength which can be adjusted on a large scale. it also can be matched after considering its strength, impact toughness and wear resistance in the light of different condition. meanwhile, in general, a crusher hammer with the weight of less than 30kg is called little crusher hammers, also named complex crusher hammer. sand factory always asks for higher quality of hammer in terms of sand-stone-making equipments. sbm, known as the bellwether of wear resistant materials in mining and cement industry, produces a newly low alloy wearable complex little hammer by adopting the technology for chemical composition and heating processing.
the crusher hammer handle is mainly made of high manganese steel and its hammerhead is made of chromium alloy with fine hardness, secondary toughness, excellent comprehensiveness and first-rate wear-resistance. all kinds of crushers and associated parts are researched and produced independently by sbm. there is no wonder that wearable complex little hammer is becoming popular because it singles toughness and wear-resistant into one and is also more wearable than high manganese steel hammers.
“one to ten” sbm crusher hammer
in june 2010, mr. danny bradley, the canada purchaser, consulted about sbm crusher hammers online. our international sales staff recommended “big gold teeth” crusher hammers to him, and told him that the service life of “big gold teeth” crusher hammers has been enhanced by 50%~100% compared to the ordinary high-manganese steel hammers, which has made our customer greatly shocked at that time. after several times of technical communication and business negotiation, on july 13th 2010, mr. danny bradley came to visit sbm together with his engineer mr. james anderson. they made an on-the-spot investigation of sbm’s production process, including molding, heat treatment, machining etc. mr. danny bradley and the engineer were quite satisfied with our “big gold teeth” crusher hammers, quality control, and production and test equipment. through further communication, mr. danny bradley ordered one set of clinker crusher hammers (that is 21 hammers), and each hammer weighs 60 kg. this set of hammers was delivered to canada in mid-february, 2011. when put into operation, our customer has found that the wear resistance of “big gold teeth” crusher hammers is far higher than that of the original high-manganese steel. the service life of high-manganese steel hammers from many companies was usually no more than two months, while sbm hammers have been in normal operation for four months from the end of january to now. sbm hammers have a much higher performance-to-price ratio.
in july 2011, in order to reward our customers for their continuous support and kindness, sbm specially developed the third generation “big gold teeth” crusher hammers with lower price and higher wear resistance, whose service life is 100% longer than zgmn18cr2 super hammer. furthermore, sbm will cuts prices to promote sales! with admiration to the quality of sbm crusher hammers, on the occasion of this promotion, our canada customer ordered 10 sets of crusher hammers, with a total of 210 clinker crusher hammers. this trade makes the third generation “big gold teeth” hammer win the crusher hammer market as soon as it joined the market war. it’s worth taking a moment to flag the fact that this series hammers created the historical miracle of “one to ten” in the industry of mining machinery parts.
sbm also can product any stone crusher parts, and has the high quality for customers any place in world!
china largest stone crusher from sbm recently, good news came from domestic crushing equipment industry. it is said that the large scale professional stone crusher has been put into operating and running in good condition, which is produced by china’s leading manufacturer of crushing equipment and wear-resistant materials sbm engineering technology.
the type of pf2325v is the largest crusher in china and the second largest crusher in the world. it shows that china has caught up the international standards in the large scale crushing equipment field. it also shows that sbm has made another historic breakerthrough in the large scale crushing equipment field, after it produced the largest single stage hammer crusher-2dpc2325, the largest clinker crusher xpcf400 at domestic.
this type large scale special stone crusher is research and developed on the basis of the features of stone crushing, its crushing capacity comes up to 1000-1500 t/h. compare to the general crusher, it has the features of large crushing ratio, high crushing efficiency. besides, the output product is aggregate cube-shaped, less flaky grain type, large edge body surface area, stronger combined with the cement surface. the stone crusher is the first choice to make aggregates for high level road and hydraulic electricity industry.
compare to general impact crusher, the advantages of pf2325v large scale stone crusher manufactured by sbm as follows:
1. research and development-sbm has a height of more than 50 persons r & d team, focusing on researching and developing stone crushing equipment and wear-resistant parts. meanwhile, we have built a wear-resisting material research institute with xi’an jiaotong university, and we have 15 years of experienceon manufacturing crushing equipment and wear resistant parts.
2. super wear resistant parts-the blow bar is made of high-chromium iron which is at internationallevel and is developed by sbm wear-resisting materialresearch institute. the main shaft is made of military gun steel with strength.the technology of whm two-step super hard surface interspersed welding isintroduced for the rotor, the life of weld bead is over two times than thatwith ordinary anti-abrasion welding head.
3. capacity-pf2325v special stone crusher has large crushing ratio: 1000-1500t/h, it is the largest in china and the second largest in the world.
4. finished aggregate –the large scale special stone crusher produced by sbm is improved on the basis of original impact crusher. it has the features of large crushing ratio, high crushing efficiency. besides, the output product is aggregate cube-shaped, less flaky grain type, large edge body surface area, stronger combined with the cement surface. the stone crusher is the first choice to make aggregates for high level road and hydraulic electricity industry.
5. social benefits-sbm largescale special stone crusher is designed on the basis of stone characteristic.it has the advantages of large crushing ratio, low noise, high crushingefficiency, and energy-saving.
sbm provides top-class stone crusher parts
sbm has the expertise to develop stone crusher spares by taking measurements, producing drawing and patterns and casting. sbm offers you the most extensive range of quality stone crusher parts to be found worldwide. the normal high manganese alloy is astm a 128 grade. sbm can manufacture various combinations of manganese ranging from 12% to 24% and chromium ranging from 2% to 3% to produce the best manganese alloy for crushing different types of stones/ores.
sbm specialized in production and supply of all kinds of stone crusher parts
1. jaw crusher parts: rack, side fender, thrust plate, lock block, bearing end-shield, spindle, swing jaw, machine case.
2. spring cone crusher parts: cone liner, parts, crushing wall, cheese head, liner plate, locknut, cutting loop, adjusting bolt, body, mortar rolled.
3. impact crusher parts: chamber liner, blow bar, impact crusher liner.
4. sand maker parts: sand maker liner, runner plate.
5. ball crusher parts: ball crusher liner, steel ball.
6. crusher parts: hammer, roll collar, 3r/ 4r/ 5r grinding roll and ring, copper casting, high manganese steel casting. and we also can manufacture various -size, various-material crusher parts according to your drawing and model. we promise we can supply good quality product with the best price , service, and the fast delivery time. looking forward to your inquiry.
global crusher brands supported
altairac, baxter, bergeaud, blaw knox, bl-pegson, brown lennox, cfbk, extec, faco, finlay, fintec, hart’l, hewitt robins, hri, goodwin barsby, kemco, kleeman reiner, kobelco, komatsu, kue ken, lokomo, minyu, officine mechaniche om, parker, pegson, pegson-SBM, powerscreen-pegson, terex-finlay, terex-pegson, SBM, sbm, sheepbridge, svedala.
global crusher spares case range
sbm jaw crusher spares parts are well sold and known by world wide local crusher agent and many exporter & importer. in india, china , canada , usa, australia, nigeria, ghana , mongolia, south africa , new zealand, alaska , peru , philippines, tanzania, malaysia, russia , california of america ,nz , bc etc.